Implementation of 7P Marketing Mix Strategy: A Case Study on VisitScotland's Tourism


According to Kotler and Armstrong (2020), the marketing mix is a basic framework applicable to the understanding and implementation of marketing strategies in industries of interest and relevance, such as tourism. It is composed of a collection of interconnected and necessary elements that promote effective product or service promotion to the target market. In the context of tourism marketing, Tsiotsou and Ratten (2010) asserted that the marketing mix can determine destination image and identity, visitors’ experiences, and the overall sector’s competitiveness. The 7P marketing framework, which includes Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Process, and Physical Evidence presents a holistic approach to planning marketing activities in the tourism sector (Ivy, 2008). Notably, the 7 Ps cover all aspects of the formula, including product design, marketing staff training, and promotion, product/firm image, and the marketing context or environment, among others. For this analysis, VisitScotland is chosen for the 7P marketing approach as a point of reference due to its critical importance and central role in promoting Scotland. Therefore, this choice allows a closer examination and evaluation of its marketing efforts and strategies as compared to the marketing literature on the discussed framework.


According to Dolnicar and Ring (2014), in the domain of tourism marketing, the sphere of “Product” relates to the spectrum of both tangible and intangible creations designed to meet the wants and needs of travellers. The formations cover attractions, accommodations, transport, events, and experiences intended to target different tourist segments. As far as VisitScotland is concerned, the scope of tourism products and experiences is broad and interesting, reflecting the authentic cultural heritage, natural sceneries, and dynamic communities of Scotland. A table is as follows:

Tourism Products and Experiences of VisitScotlandExamples
Historic Sites and LandmarksEdinburgh Castle, Stirling Castle, Skara Brae
Natural AttractionsHighlands, Isle of Skye, Loch Ness
Cultural Events and FestivalsEdinburgh Festival Fringe, Highland Games, Ceilidh dances
Adventure ActivitiesHiking in Cairngorms National Park, Kayaking on Scottish lochs, Mountain biking
Whisky Distillery ToursGlenfiddich, Glenlivet
Golf Courses and ResortsSt Andrews, Royal Troon
Culinary ExperiencesHaggis, Salmon, Whisky tastings
Wildlife Watching ToursRed deer, Puffins, Seals
Arts and Crafts MarketsEdinburgh Christmas Market, Isle of Skye Craft Market
Music FestivalsCeltic Connections festival, Glasgow

These products and experiences not only accommodate various tourists’ interests and preferences but also make a major contribution to the country’s tourism business, attracting visitors from every corner of the world, present in Scotland.


The study by Jain (2013) highlighted that price is a critical element in the marketing mix and influences the consumer’s decision-making process. The price component aligns with what consumers believe they will receive in return for their investment in a product or service. Beyond that, the price influences the company’s revenue and its position in the market. In the area of tourism, pricing is necessary to attract tourists, increase profitability and outdo competitors (Li and Petrick, 2008). VisitScotland uses various pricing strategies to make Scotland an attractive destination to different segments. The strategies are implemented to make Scotland more accessible regardless of the level of exposure provided by the country to the target market. One remarkable pricing strategy used by VisitScotland is dynamic pricing to adjust prices based on seasonality, demand fluctuations, and special events. As per Seaman (2018), dynamic pricing allows VisitScotland to avoid underpricing during peak periods and attract tourists during off-peak periods when prices can be lowered, allowing the country to attract tourists throughout the year (Seaman, 2018). Furthermore, the organisation attaches various components such as accommodation, attractions, and in some cases transport cost to offer packages at a discounted price (Page et al., 2010). The packages allow tourists to pay less than they would have paid, creating value for tourists and continuously exposing them to Scotland’s culture reducing the number of inbound tourists to the country (Yeoman, Greenwood, and McMahon-Beattie, 2009). VisitScotland also targets specific groups, such as families, students, and seniors, to offer discounts between specific times of the year. The structural approach demonstrates that VisitScotland provides a cost structure that considers the value of pricing and the consumer’s cost. The approach has a strategic impact on sustainable development.


Another element of marketing is “Place,” which represents the distribution of an organisation’s products or services to its clientele (Jain, 2013). When it comes to tourism and hospitality, the concept of place includes arrangements regarding the location of Scotland’s available tourist attractions and the ways and means of promoting them. Thus, the accessibility factor and the utilisation of distribution channels are of utmost importance in achieving the desired level of visibility and access for visitors. VisitScotland makes use of Scotland’s spatial diversity by promoting a vast number of its rich and various tourist attractions, from dynamic urban sites to undisturbed natural wilderness (Daniele and Frew, 2008). The distribution vertical aims to reach as wide an audience as possible, thus attracting it. Critical to this end is the factor of accessibility. Accessibility also includes encouraging access to transport links through improvements like the construction of airport facilities, rail links, and motorways. Information accessibility also plays a significant role, and it is achieved through the easy dissemination of data over digital platforms. Such procedures ensure a high level of accessibility for potential tourists desiring to find and visit the identified recreational targets. Numerous distribution channels facilitate the placement and location of the product. The company’s website and mobile application, as well as travel agents and information centers, are important points of contact. They provide data about desired destinations, assist in booking conveniently, and offer a specific array of tourist services. Thus, it becomes evident that “Place” as an element of the 4Ps theory is important for the promotion of tourism products.


The fourth element of the marketing mix “Promotion” is primarily responsible for communicating the value of a product or service and persuading the target audience to opt for the company’s offerings (Jain, 2013). Promotion includes several approaches and channels aimed at creating awareness, interest, and retention among consumers (Anjani, Irham and Waluyati, 2018). Due to the specific nature of business, promotion is crucial for tourism organisations to attract tourists to visit specific countries and locations. For this reason, VisitScotland tries to promote Scotland’s culture, attractions, and experiences to draw more visitors to the country (Leith and Sim, 2020). The promotion by VisitScotland is diverse and pursues an Omni-channel approach that includes both traditional and digital platforms. The most important aspect of its promotion is storytelling, where a country’s history, culture, and identity are shared through creative imagery, video marketing, and stories hosted on the companies’ website as well as shared through social network marketing in cooperation with travel bloggers and social media influencers. Furthermore, the organisation runs thematic promotional advertisements focusing on specific themes such as the Edinburgh Festivals, and locations, such as outdoor experiences in the Highlands. In digital terms, the omnichannel approach is supported by content optimisation for search engines, where search engine marketing and search engine optimisation are employed to ensure that the most relevant and high-quality content appears at the top of search results. Promotion strategy also relies on cooperative marketing efforts with travel agencies, online travel-booking platforms like and tour operators to maximise its reach (Melamed, 2017). The organisation also uses public relations and event marketing, hosting professional events, and inviting journalists to visit the country regularly.


People is another component in the marketing mix, focusing on the pivotal role of people involved in both the delivery and consumption of service (Mohammad, 2015). In tourism, People include not only the employees and management but also the customers and the wider community in which the service takes place (Middleton et al., 2009). This element is particularly significant because it significantly affects customer satisfaction, loyalty, and the overall perception of the destination. VisitScotland acknowledges the invaluable contribution of its people to marketing Scotland as a top destination. The organisation values its employees’ knowledge and experience, considering friendly and knowledgeable employees as its most valuable resource in service delivery. VisitScotland offers its employees extensive training programs to develop their expert knowledge and customer service skills. Discussions range from local expertise and cultural understanding to communication and problem-solving skills to ensure that every interaction adds value to the customer’s experience. Furthermore, VisitScotland’s commitment to exemplary customer service is demonstrated through a hands-on approach to visitor engagement. The organisation is run by professionals who are not only passionate about Scotland’s rich history and culture but are also excellent at making the Scottish experience memorable and unique (Bhandari, 2014). They offer individualised advice, share valuable tips on locations, and ensure they fulfill the tour operations’ full objectives. This approach enhances Scotland’s positive image and reputation, increases revisits, and stimulates word-of-mouth promotion. This interaction with people is evidentially achieving its objectives, as evidenced by the several customer satisfaction scores and feedback collected routinely. Awards and acknowledgment in customer service and employee relations in the case of VisitScotland affirm the successful impact of People in marketing Scotland as a tourism destination. Hence, as a conclusion, People at VisitScotland’s efforts are a perfect illustration of the acknowledgment of the impact of staff and their skills on service consumption. By taking good care of its employees’ development, VisitScotland guarantees that every interaction involving a visitor adds value to Scottish tourism, which is a significant success factor in the competitive global industry.


The second element of marketing is the “Process,” which monitors the sequence of actions and procedures that facilitate the delivery of services to the client (Jain, 2013). Typically, it encompasses the entire process that a consumer goes through, starting from being aware of a product or service until the moment they use it. VisitScotland and other tourism organisations achieve long-term client loyalty and satisfaction by implementing effective processes that produce high-quality and individually fulfilling services. VisitScotland has meticulously crafted the customer’s journey to provide guidance and assistance to travellers at each stage of their trip. Initially, there is the initial stage of knowledge and exploration when prospective tourists first encounter the tourist attractions of Scotland. The primary objective of VisitScotland is to enhance inspiration, awareness, and education by providing comprehensive and culturally significant content about various locations, activities, and traditions (VisitScotland, 2020). The process of arrival and booking is streamlined through the use of online selling platforms and collaborations with travel brokers. Furthermore, the process of reserving accommodations and arranging leisure activities has been simplified thanks to the VisitScotland websites and affiliated partners. If there is a problem or inquiry, the client can rely on the team’s website to provide a prompt and effective response. Upon the visitor’s arrival, they receive comprehensive guidance and suggestions for activities and attractions from the information office and the park’s rangers.

Physical Evidence

Physical evidence is a marketing term that describes all the physical, tangible aspects and materials that customers come into contact with or experience while in the service process (Brassington and Pettit, 2012). The physical evidence is an essential determinant while creating a perception of the service and is the only tangible proof of received high-grade service when outcomes are intangible, like tourism (Palmer, 2012). Physical evidence will for instance entail facilities and the infrastructure of the organisation, employee’s uniforms, and signage of necessary information about services. Adding this element to the service will help to in-service perceived quality and brand identity. For VisitScotland, physical evidence is central to creating the visitor’s positive experience while helping establish a Scottish identity that is desirable to travelers. The physical evidence will include the flyer and brochures, color combinations of the brand, and employee uniforms. VisitScotland will use a range of tangible aspects to make a significant influence on the visitor. It will ensure that there are good and well-organised access points to the client, such as maintained visitor centers, and the country has an accessible point of services. For example, arrows and signs, the design of the signs and information, while also making one feel safe and oriented.


Enhance Digital EngagementImproves online presence, reaches younger demographics, and leverages social media influence.
Personalise Visitor ExperiencesIncreases customer satisfaction and loyalty through tailored travel recommendations and itineraries.
Sustainable Tourism InitiativesAttracts eco-conscious tourists, promotes long-term tourism sustainability, and strengthens brand image.
Collaborate with Local BusinessesCreates unique local experiences, supports the local economy, and diversifies tourism offerings.
Expand AccessibilityEnsures tourism is inclusive, enhancing the experience for people with disabilities and promoting universal accessibility.
Leverage Augmented and Virtual RealityEnriches the discovery phase, provides immersive previews of destinations, and enhances pre-visit engagement.


Anjani, H.D., Irham, I. and Waluyati, L.R., 2018. Relationship of 7P marketing mix and consumers’ loyalty in traditional markets. Agro Ekonomi29(2), pp.261-273.

Bhandari, K., 2014. Tourism and national identity: Heritage and nationhood in Scotland (Vol. 39). Channel View Publications.

Daniele, R. and Frew, A.J., 2008. Evolving destination systems: VisitScotland. com. In Information and communication technologies in tourism 2008 (pp. 232-243). Springer, Vienna.

Dolnicar, S. and Ring, A. (2014). Tourism marketing research: Past, present and future. Annals of Tourism Research, 47, pp.31–47. doi:

Ivy, J. (2008). A new higher education marketing mix: the 7Ps for MBA marketing. International Journal of Educational Management, [online] 22(4), pp.288–299. doi:

Palmer, A., 2012. Introduction to marketing: Theory and practice. Oxford University Press, USA.

Brassington, F. and Pettit, S. (2012) Essentials of Marketing, 3rd Ed: FT/Prentice Hall

Jain, M.K. (2013). An Analysis of Marketing Mix: 7Ps or more. Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 1(4), pp.23–28.

Kotler, P. and Armstrong, G. (2020) Principles of Marketing, Global Edition. 18th edition. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited

Leith, M.S. and Sim, D., 2020. Scotland, tourism and heritage. In Scotland (pp. 210-227). Manchester University Press.

Li, X. (Robert) and Petrick, J.F. (2008). Tourism Marketing in an Era of Paradigm Shift. Journal of Travel Research, 46(3), pp.235–244. doi:

Melamed, M., 2017. Online Marketing Plan for a Travel Company.

Middleton, V., Fyall, A. Morgan, M. Ranchhod, A. (2009) Marketing in Travel and Tourism, 4th ed. London: Routledge

Mohammad, H.I. (2015). 7PS MARKETING MIX AND RETAIL BANK CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN NORTHEAST NIGERIA. British Journal of Marketing Studies, 3(3), pp.71–88.

Page, S.J., Yeoman, I., Connell, J. and Greenwood, C., 2010. Scenario planning as a tool to understand uncertainty in tourism: the example of transport and tourism in Scotland in 2025. Current Issues in Tourism13(2), pp.99-137.

Seaman, B.A., 2018. Static and dynamic pricing strategies: how unique for nonprofits?. In Handbook of Research on Nonprofit Economics and Management (pp. 199-224). Edward Elgar Publishing.

Tsiotsou, R. and Ratten, V. (2010). Future research directions in tourism marketing. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 28(4), pp.533–544. doi:

VisitScotland (2020). About Us | [online] Available at:

Yeoman, I., Greenwood, C. and McMahon-Beattie, U., 2009. The future of Scotland’s international tourism markets. Futures41(6), pp.387-395.


Have an urgent assignment deadline?

Don't worry, we are available 24/7 for you!

Hire a Writer
Scroll to Top